The P1 and K2 constituents which were not included in theforcing and are the next two important forcing tides may contribute to the Mf andMsf constituents via interactions with the 01 and M2 tides respectively and therebychange the picture of a dominant Mf tidal constituent. The number of layers in the modeldomain depends on the local depth and the last layer will have a variable thickness tofurther accommodate the topography at any given place. Theeffect of the wind stress is to push this upper-layer as a slab in the wind direction. In the top panel the contributions to the tendency fromthe pressure gradient dotted lines , Coriolis dashed lines and advection terms plussign are plotted. A multi-layer model of the Strait of Georgia 93with a tendency to be larger on the mainland side of the Strait. Obviously, betterresults were obtained in the spatial distribution of the major diurnal and semidiurnaltides.

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The dominant modes are the Msf and MmChapter 3.

The market value of the Physical Delivery Amount or the Cash Value thereof will most likely be substantially less than the principal amount of your notes, and may be zero. The velocity from theobservations for these layers was obtained as described in Table 3. Instead, the payment at maturity will be based on the Final Share Price of the Reference Stock and whether the closing price of the Reference Stock has declined from the Initial Share Price by more than the Protection Amount during the Monitoring Period, as described below.

Onefeature common to all of the regions is that bottom friction is negligible, due presumablyto the large depths in the central Strait see Figure 2. The bottom panel shows the sum of all terms, i. The difference is with the run that excludes the K2 and P1 tidal constituents. For inflow the density is specified at the open boundaries. A multi-layer model of the Strait of Georgia 84motion in particular, and the nonlinear interactions continue to spread energy at differentfrequencies; the mechanism will result in the kind of broad band energy spectra of thecurrents observed in the Strait of Georgia.


In the middle andbottom panels the result of adding respectively the first two and all three of these termsis shown in thin lines.

The numerical model solves the momentum equations 3. Actually, as mentionedbefore, there is some numerical diffusion and the water density of these layers is raisedto more reasonable values. I I20, Time-averaged t field for the different layers. This analysis is similar to that performed by Greenberg with the aim of identifying the mechanisms producing residual flows in the Gulfof Maine.

List item the first 2. A one-layer model of the Strait of Georgia 32I close this section by noting that advection plays a major role in the vorticity 4-nainics in this model which is consistent with the observations discussed in Stacey et al.

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The observed low frequency currents accountfor approximately half of the total kinetic energy of the fluctuating currents; the otherhalf is associated with diurnal and semidiurnal tidal currents. Needless to say it is mf-b2s too optimistic to expect a purely tidally-driven model toreproduce observed residuals given the presence of the other forcing mechanisms existingin the real world.

Time series of the wind velocity components for the same set of selectedgridpoints of Figures 3. The oscillations of the fluctuating residual are dominatedby periodicities of about 15 and 30 days.


Time series of the residual velocity components for selected grid points forlayer 3 of the model for a run without wind forcing.

The first formulation, resulting in 3. A multi-layer model of the Strait of Georgia typical balance of forces in most of the different levels of the model. The time period of theaverage is three-months, The horizontal eddy viscosity coefficient, zof this run is m2 s1. Note thatthe velocity scale of the fluctuating residual is different from that of the mean residualChapter 3 A multi-layer model of the Strait of Georgia This problem persists with Karmic 9.

Thesetwo terms, in this particular case, determines the local rate of change of kinetic energy. Distance kms Figure 2. As an example,Figure 3. This is simply the reference run averaged over three mf-n2. However, if the two pairs contributing to the Mf are out of phase, theamplitude will be reduced only to 0. The model gridpoints which mff-n2s to the cyclesonde stations havenominal depths of, and m.

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At deeper levels, the absolute mf-n2z are closer but the modeledvalues of o show almost none of the fluctuations which are present in the observations. Days are in Julian days starting 1 January, It appears that the residual currents in the central Strait of Georgia are too complexto be accurately reproduced with this depth-averaged model.

These results are time-averaged and they represent theChapter 3.